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二戰太平洋電影 Cinema & Collective Memory of WWII in Eastern Asia and in the Pacific

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  • 二戰太平洋電影 Cinema & Collective Memory of WWII in Eastern Asia and in the Pacific

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遠東地區和太平洋地區的戰爭(1937-1945),不僅是地緣戰略領域完全特殊的軍事戰場,同時也是上個世紀四十年代,新的戰爭敘事中,相當出色的參照”對象”。法國歷史學家諾頓克魯 (Jean Noeton Cru,1879-1949),在他的重要著作”證人 “ (Temoins)書中,呈現戰爭敘事的演變。相對於傳統由將軍們、政治人物、軍事史學家、被授權的專欄作家等等,在他的書裡,關於一戰期間的戰爭敘事是由在壕溝裡的戰士,各種境況的人所做的。諾頓克魯公開否定一般人從斯湯達的小說 « 帕爾瑪修道院 » (La Charreuse de Parme )所得來的印象,認為身陷戰場的平凡人總是 « 當局者迷 »,這樣的刻板印象。他在敘事場域中提出新的敘事者─任何穿著軍服的人。比起傳統上由功業彪炳的將軍與軍事史學家所書寫的愛國或英雄敘事,由魏爾當(Verdun)戰役存活的一戰軍人嘴裡或筆下所敘述的戰爭,顯然就沒那麼光采動人了。
太平洋和遠東地區的戰爭成了戰爭電影發明很特殊的實驗,嶄新的敘事部署帶來前所未有的異質性,戰爭電影將 « 發言權 »給了被丟進激烈戰場的士兵,如同給偉大的戰略學家或政治領袖一般,戰爭電影也製造了前所未見的敘事強度,這是由言說、影像、音效、視覺效果以及剪輯的效果所帶來的印象,這已經不是一個聲音的敘事,而是千音敘事,而且,這也不再是參與戰爭的人的戰爭敘事了。
因此,我們要質問的是在此一電影敘事的浮現與的集體經驗田野─遠東、大平洋地區的戰爭所建立的關係,這新的敘事形式的大量生產(我們研究的電影超過一百部!)是為了取代諾杜克魯所讚揚的小兵敘事嗎?或者,恰恰相反,戰爭電影是個間接的途徑,透過此一途徑,無論底層小民或上層菁英的聲音都能以民主的方式被聽到?

The war in East Asia and in the Pacific (1937-1945) is not only a very specific topography (in its geo-strategic dimension) for the states involved in the conflict ; it is also a tropic in relation to which a new form of war narrative is invented and promoted from the very beginning of the war.
In his memorable work entitled Witnesses (Temoins), the French historian Jean Norton Cru contrasts the testimonies of the soldiers in the trenches, during WWI, men from all conditions, with the traditional war narrative which is most of the time worked out by patricians, people from the elites – high ranking officiers, statesmen, military historians, renowned chroniclers, etc. Norton Cru strongly challenges the common opinion according to which the ordinary man, immersed in the fray, misses the essential of the battle and sees almost nothing of it – it is the famous paradox of Fabrice who goes through the battle of Waterloo like a tourist, a desoriented stroller
(Stendhal, The Charterhouse of Parma, 1839).
Norton Cru insists on this sudden innovation : the appearance within the framawork of war narratives of this new type ofwriter and teller – the average man wearing an uniform. This handover changes everything, he says : very obviously, war is much less ornamental and attractive when related by an infantry man who survived the apocalyptic battle around Verdun (1918) than as described in a heroic and patriotic tone by a hired military historian or a victorious general.
The war in East Asia and first of all in the Pacific was a very stimulating experimentation field for war movies, which really have been invented as a ? genre ? during these years. A new narrator appears then, very different from the one Norton Cru gives prominence to. Or, more precisely, a new narrative device (dispositif) is then set up. The narrator is like multiplied ; in the theatre of total war, on sea, in the air, in the jungle..., the narration becomes a kind of symphony : the sailor, the pilot, the marine, but Gen. Mc Arthur, President Roosevelt and his advisers as well, but also ordinary people from the rear, relatives of those who are on the frontline - everyone has a chance to express his or her thoughts, feeling and emotions about the war raging in the Pacific. Furthermore, cinema (movie-making) is endowed with an unprecedented capacity of manufacturing narratives in series, narratives combining words, images, powerful acoustic and visual or editing effects. A new narrative form combining hundreds of voices and positions.
But on the other hand, of course, the cinematographic device, becoming then the ? grand narrator ? of war, confiscates the power of narration from those who are the real front actors of the war – millions of soldiers, most of them being enlisted civilians.
Consequently, we have to consider the relation that exists between the emergence of the cinematographic narrator and the war in the Pacific and in East Asia as a field for a shared (and splittered) experience for millions of people. To what extent is this new form of war narration bound to replace that from below which Norton Cru highlights – or is it maybe some kind of oblique way for movi
es.


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