課程專區

Course

詞彙語意學 Lexical Semantics

課程大綱

  • 詞彙語意學 Lexical Semantics

Objectives

This course is designed to introduce students to the fascinating field of lexical semantics, the study of the interaction of syntactic behavior and semantic properties. Lexical semantics can be approached from different perspectives with different concerns and the class is meant to introduce all major approaches that have shed important light on the study of lexical knowledge and representations. Lectures and
class discussions will focus on the major theoretical frameworks and their applications. In the course of 18 weeks, 12 major approaches will be introduced:

1. Syntax-lexical semantic interface: Argument structure (B. Levin)
2. Prototype Theory (Dowty)
3. Construction Grammar (A. Goldberg)
4. Conceptual semantics (R. Jackendoff)
5. Frame Semantics (C. Fillmore)
6. Cognitive semantics and configuration (Langnacker)
7. Cognitive Semantics and lexicalization (L. Talmy)
8. Cognitive Semantics and metaphorical extension (G. Lakoff)
9. Generative Lexicon (J. Pustejovsky)
10. Grammaticalization and Semantic change (E. Traugott and J. Bybee)
11. Corpus linguistics (D. Biber)
12. Emergent Grammar (P. Hopper)

Each theoretical framework will be illustrated with representative papers that show the basic constructs of the theory and how the approach can be applied to the analysis of a linguistic issue. After the theories are introduced, a few case studies will be included to show how recent works on Mandarin lexical semantics have advanced and how the project on the construction of Mandarin VerbNet has progressed. The ultimate goal of this class is to provide students with a broad range of background knowledge that will enable the students to carry out meaningful research in lexical semantics.


Schedule of classes:

週次
課程內容
Week 1
Introduction of the course
What is a lexicon?
Culture as reflected in the lexicon: 醒、覺
Week 2
- The nature of lexical knowledge
- Ambiguity, polysemy, and vagueness
Week 3
Approach (1): Syntax-semantic interface
Alternation-based approach
- Alternations and classes: Psych verbs, Motion verbs
Week 4
- From Lexical Semantics to Argument Realization:
4 different approaches of event structure
representation
- Lexical semantics and syntactic structure: the
unaccusative hypothesis
Week 5
Approach (2): Prototype theory
- Thematic Proto-roles and Argument Selection
Week 6
Approach (3): Construction Grammar:
- The interaction between verbs and constructions
- Caused motion/Resultative construction
Week 7
Lexical rules vs. Constructional approach
- Twistin’ the night away
- Jackendoff and construction grammar
Week 8
Approach (4): Conceptual semantics
- Thematic vs. Action tier
- Psychological/evaluative predicates
Week 9
Approach (5): Frame semantics
- Overview of frame semantics
- Frame-based lexicon: ‘risk’-verbs
- The role of Frame semantics in construction
grammar
Week 10
Approach (6): Cognitive semantics
- Lexicalization patterns
- Event conflation
Week 11
Approach (7): Cognitive grammar
Schema and extension
- Things, (relations) and processes
Week 12
Approach (8): Prototype and metaphor
- The case of English ‘over’
- From cognition to grammar
Week 13
Approach (9): Grammaticalization and semantic change
- Back to the future
- Semantics-pragmatics in grammaticalization
Week 14
Approach (10): Generative Lexicon
- Introduction to generative lexicon
- Qualia Structure
Week 15
Approach (11): Corpus-based approach
- Corpus approach to lexico-grammar
Approach (12): Toward an emergent view of lexical
semantics
Week 16
- From collocation to event information: verbs of
discussion
- The construction of Mandarin VerbNet
Week 17
- 近義詞: 高興 vs. 快樂
- Beyond lexical semantics: the pro-verb GAN
Week 18
A mini-conference: Presentation


Texts

  1. Required: A packet of required readings will be available for photocopies.
  2. Supplementary: Mandarin Verbal Semantics: a corpus-based approach


Grading

項目
百分比
1. Attendance and active participation
20%
2. Weekly reading and discussion leadership
20%
3. Group projects and oral presentation
20%
4. Midterm take-home exam
20%
5. Final project: a lexical semantic analysis
20%


Attendance and participation:

  1. Active participation is the key to successful learning. Students are encouraged to form study groups to discuss weekly readings and work together on group project and presentation.
  2. Three excused absences are allowed, but more than three unexcused absences will result in automatic failing of the class.


Group Presentation:

Each group/individual is required to choose 2-3 topics for class presentation, depending on the number of groups. The presentation should give a thorough report of: thesis of the paper, questions asked, data collected, approach used, argumentation with syntactic evidence, syntactic-to-semantic analysis, conclusion and implication.


Midterm take-home exam:

There is only one question for the exam. Students will be presented with a set of data for a lexical semantic analysis, using a specific framework.


Final Project:

Students are encouraged to apply what is learned in the class to the analysis of a specific verb or lexical issue that is of interest to the students.


References

Rd 1
韓少功. 1997. 醒, 覺. 馬橋詞典:58-62. 台北:時報出版.
Rd 2
Pustejovsky, J. 1995. The nature of lexical knowledge. The Generative Lexicon, 5-26.
London: MIT Press.
Tuggy, D. 1993. Ambiguity, polysemy, and vagueness. Cognitive Linguistics (includes
Cognitive Linguistic Bibliography), 4(3), 273-290.
Rd 3
Levin, B. 1993. English verb classes and alternations: a preliminary investigation.
Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
Rd 4
 
Levin, B. and Hovav, M.R. 1996a. From lexical semantics to argument realization.
Unpublished MS. Northwestern University and Bar Ilan University. A revised
and expanded version will appear in the Cambridge. Research Surveys in
Linguistics Series.
Levin, B. & Hovav, M.R. 1996b. Lexical semantics and syntactic structure. The
Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory, ed. by S. Lappin, 487-507.
Rd 5
Dowty, D. 1991. Thematic proto-roles and argument selection. language, 547-619.
Rd 6
Goldberg, A.E. 1995. Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument
Structure. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press.
Goldberg, A. E., & Jackendoff, R. 2004. The English resultative as a family of
constructions. Language, 532-568.
Rd 7
Goldberg, A. E. 1996. Jackendoff and construction-based grammar. Cognitive
Linguistics (includes Cognitive Linguistic Bibliography), 7(1), 3-20.
Jackendoff, R. 1997. Twistin’ the Night away. Language 73 III: 534-559.
Rd 8
Jackendoff, R. 1992. Semantic structures (Vol. 18). MIT press.
Jackendoff, R. 2007. Language, consciousness, culture: Essays on mental structure.
MIT Press.
Rd 9
Fillmore, Charles J. & Beryl T. Atkins. 1992. Toward a frame-based lexicon: the
semantics of RISK and its neighbors. In Adrienne Lehrer and Eva Feder Kittay
(eds.) Frames, Fields and Contrasts. 75-102. Hillsdale, NJ. Erlbaum.
Nemoto, N. 1998. On the polysemy of ditransitive save: the role of frame semantics
in construction grammar. English linguistics, 15, 219-242.
Petruck, M. R. 1996. Frame semantics. Handbook of pragmatics, 1-13.
Rd 10
Talmy, L. 1991. Path to realization: A typology of event conflation. In Proceedings of
the annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society General Session and
Parasession on The Grammar of Event Structure, 480-519
Talmy, L. 2003. Lexicalization pattern. In Toward a Cognitive Semantics, Vol. II.,
chapter 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
Rd 11
Langacker, R. W. 1987. Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical
prerequisites (Vol. 1). Stanford university press.
Rd 12
Heine, B., Claudi, U., & Htinnemeyer, F. 1991. From Cognition to Grammar –
Evidence from African Languages. Approaches to Grammaticalization: Volume I.
Theoretical and methodological issues, 19(1), 149.
Lakoff, G. 1990. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about
the mind. Chicago: University of Chicago press.
Rd 13
Bybee, J. L., & Pagliuca, W. und Revere D. Perkins. 1991. Back to the Future.
Approaches to Grammaticalization II: Focus on Types of Grammatical Markers.
Traugott, E. C., & König, E. 1991. The semantics-pragmatics of grammaticalization
revisited. Approaches to grammaticalization, 1, 189-218.
Rd 14
Pustejovsky, J. 2008. Introduction to Generative Lexicon.
Pustejovsky, J. 1995. The Generative Lexicon. MIT Press.
Rd 15
Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Reppen, R. 1998. Corpus linguistics: Investigating language
structure and use. Cambridge University Press.
Hongyin, T. 2003. Toward an emergent view of lexical semantics. Language and
Linguistics 4.4: 837-856. Taipei: Academic Sinica.
Rd 16
Liu, Meichun. 2003. From Collocation to Event Information: The Case of Mandarin
Verbs of Discussion. Language and Linguistics 4.3:563-585. Taipei: Academic
Sinica.
Liu, Meichun., & Chiang, Tingyin. 2008. The construction of Mandarin VerbNet: A
frame-based study of statement verbs. Language and Linguistics, 9.2: 239-270.
Taipei: Academic Sinica.
Rd 17
Liu, Meichen. 2005. Lexical information and beyond: Meaning coercion and
constructional inference of the Mandarin verb GAN. Journal of Chinese
Linguistics 33,2: 310-332
蔡美智, 黃居仁, & 陳克健. 1996. 由近義詞辨義標準看語意語法之互動. 中國
境內語言暨語言學: 第五輯語言中的互動. 台北, 南港: 中央研究院. 第
439-459 頁.

 


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