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中文功能語法專題 Functional Approaches to Mandarin Chinese

Objectives

This class is a continuation and advancement of ‘Syntax II: functional approaches to syntax’. It is designed to further students knowledge and understanding of the functional issues and theories involved in the analyses of Mandarin Chinese. Besides the Introduction-recent developments in functional approaches to Chinese, the lectures will focus on 10 major areas to explore the unique characters of Mandarin:

  1. Basic sentence structure: topic, subject and clause chain
  2. Functionalism and Chinese: cognition-based grammar
  3. Cognitive basis for grammatical categories: classifiers and VRs
  4. Iconicity: temporal sequence and motion sequence
  5. The aspectual system: LE/GUO/ZHE and verbal aspect
  6. Discourse and grammar: discourse explanation of grammatical form
  7. Constructional approach: form-meaning association
  8. Emergent grammar: article system
  9. Corpus approach: near-synonyms
  10. Semantic change and grammatiacalization

For each topic, 2-3 papers will be chosen to illustrate how the topic has been dealt with in the literature. The readings serve to provide a solid foundation of classic works and a wide spectrum of important issues concerning the Chinese grammar. Students are encouraged to have a broad knowledge base of all the issues discussed in class and concentrate on 1-2 areas of interest for further investigation. Students are expected to be able to apply the theoretical framework to solve a specific issue related to their interest. The class will eventually enable students to have an in-depth understanding of the unique properties of Mandarin Chinese and to conduct a small-scale research from a chosen functional perspective.


Tentative Schedule

Week
Topic
W1

Introduction of the course
Basic tenets of functional syntax
Chinese vs. English

W2

Functional approaches to Chinese
Sentence structure:
Topic-Comment

W3

Functionalism and Chinese Grammar

W4

Cognitive basis for Categorization/categoriality
Why classifiers?
Why VRs?

W5
Iconicity: word order in Chinese
W6
Aspect in Chinese
W7
Discourse Pragmatic
W8
Discourse, grammar and grammaticalization
W9

Emergent grammar:
Article system

W10

Emergent grammar:
Demonstratives

W11
Conversational analysis
W12
Corpus approach to near-synonyms
W13
Corpus approach to verbal semantics
W14
Construction grammar
W15
Constructional approach to VRC construction
W16

Happy New Year!No class

W17
Subjectivity and semantic change
W18
Class Conference


Reading material
:

a packet of selected papers for weekly reading


Recommended texts

  1. 1.Chao, Yuenren. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley U Press.
  2. Charles Li and Sandra Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: a functional reference grammar. 1981. University of California Press.
  3. James Huang and Audrey Li, eds. 1996. New Horizons in Chinese Linguistics. Kluwer Academic Publisher
  4. Chaofen Sun. 2006. Chinese: a linguistic introduction. Cambridge Press


Pre-requisite
:

It is strongly recommended that students should have taken Syntax II


Grading

項目
百分比
1. Attendance and participation
20%
2. Weekly reading and group discussion
20%
3. Oral presentation
20%
4. Mid-term Critique
20%
5. Final Project
20%


Mid-term Critique

This is designed for the students to review and comment on one particular paper discussed in class. Students need to give a well-organized summary of the article with five parts: the issue (with brief literature review), the goal and scope of the paper (the niche), the data and framework, the argument and proposal (with linguistic evidence), the contribution and/or problems unsolved. Students are encouraged to challenge the author by presenting new data, counterexamples, different analysis or different explanations. (3-5 pages)


Final Project: a corpus-based analysis

This is designed for the students to write up a preliminary proposal for an issue of their interests, taking a functional and corpus-based approach (5-10 pages). Students may take the opportunity to ask a question, start collecting and sorting data, reviewing literature, identifying the niche, doing grammatical analyses and forming a hypothesis.


Reference

  1. Biq Yung-O, Tai James, Thompson Sandra. 1996. Recent Development in Functional Approaches to Chinese. New Horizons in Chinese Linguistics, 97-140. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands.
  2. Tsao, Feng-Fu. 1990. Subject, Topic and Topic Chain in Chinese. Sentence and Clause Structure in Chinese: a functional perspective. Taipei: Student Book. Co..
  3. Tsao, Feng-Fu .1987. A Topic-Comment Approach to the BA Construction. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 15, 1:1-54.
  4. Tai, James H-Y. 1989. Toward a cognition-based functional grammar of Chinese. Functionalism and Chinese Grammar, J. Tai and F. Hsueh (ed.), 186-226. Chinese Language Teachers Association Monograph Series No.1. South Orange:
    Chinese Language Teachers Association.(漢譯文見《功能主義與漢語語法》,
    葉蜚聲等譯,北京:北京語言學院出版社,1994)
  5. Huang, Chu-Ren. 1990. Review of Tai and Hsueh (eds.), Functionalism and Chinese Grammar. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 18, 2:318-334.
  6. Tai, James H-Y and Chao, Fang-Yi. 1994. A Semantic Study of the Classifier ZHANG. Journal of Chinese Linguistics Teachers Association 29, 3:67-78.
  7. Xing, Janet Zhiqun. 2012. Semantic change in the grammaticalization of classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Newest Trends in the Study of Grammaticalization and Lexicalization in Chinese. Janet Zhiqun Xing (Ed.), 270-213. De Gruyter Mouton.
  8. Liu, Mei-chun. 1997. Conceptual Basis and Categorial Structure: Mandarin VR compounds. Symposium Series of the Institute of History and Philology Academia Sinica, Number 2. Chinese Languages and Linguistics IV: Typological Studies of Languages in China. Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
  9. Tai, James H-Y. 1985. Temporal Sequence and Chinese Word Order. Iconicity in Syntax: Typological Studies in Language: 6. John Haiman (ed.), John Benjamins Publishing Co..
  10. Liu et al. 2013. The Proto-Motion Event Schema: Integrating Lexical Semantics and Morphological Sequencing. Paper submitted to Journal of Chinese Linguistics.
  11. Tai, James H-Y. 1984. Verbs and Times in Chinese: Vendler’s Four Categories. Papers from the Parsession on Lexical Semantics. Chicago Linguistics Society, 289-296.
  12. Smith, Carlota. 1991. The Aspectual System of Mandarin Chinese. The Parameter of Aspect. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  13. Biq, Yung-O. 1989. Ye as Manifested on Three Discourse Planes: Polysemy or Abstraction? Functionalism and Chinese Grammar. J. Tai and F. Hsueh (ed.), 1-18. Chinese Language Teachers Association Monograph Series No.1. South Orange: Chinese Language Teachers Association.
  14. Biq, Yung-O. 2004. People, Things and Stuff: General Nouns in Spoken Mandarin. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 30, 1: 41-64.
  15. Biq, Yung-O. 1991. The Multiple uses of the 2nd person singular pronoun ni in conversational Mandarin. Journal of Pragmatics 16: 307-321. North-Holland.
  16. Liu, Mei-Chun. 1994. Discourse Explanations for the Choice of Jiu and Cai in Mandarin Conversation. 《中國境內語言暨語言學》2: 671-709.
  17. Liu, Mei-Chun. 1997. From Motion Verb to Linking Elements: Discourse Explanations for the Grammaticalization of Jiu in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 25, 2:258-289.
  18. Huang, Shuan-Fan. 1998. The Emergence of a grammatical category definite article in spoken Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics 31: 77-94.
  19. Liu, Mei-chun. 2010. Emergence of the indefinite article: discourse evidence for the grammaticalization of YIGE in spoken Mandarin. Formal Evidence in Grammaticalization Research, An Van linden, Jean-Christophe Verstraete and Kristin Davidse (eds.). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
  20. Tao, Hongyin. 1999. The Grammar of Demonstratives in Mandarin Conversational Discourse: A Case Study. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 27, 1: 69-103.
  21. Fang, Mei. 2012. The emergence of a definite article in Beijing Mandarin: The evolution of the proximal demonstrative zhe. Newest Trends in the Study of Grammaticalization and Lexicalization in Chinese. Janet Zhiqun Xing (Ed.), 55-86. De Gruyter Mouton.
  22. Wang, Yu-Fang. 1999. The Information Sequences of Adverbial Clauses in Mandarin Chinese Conversation. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 27, 2: 45-89.
  23. Tao, Hong-Yin and Sandra A. Thompson. 1991. English Backchannels in Mandarin Conversations: A Case Study of Superstratum Pragmatic ‘interference.’ Journal of Pragmatics 16: 209-223. North-Holland.
  24. 蔡美智、黃居仁、陳克健。1999。由近義詞辨義標準看語意、句法之互動。《中國境內語言暨語言學》,5: 439-459。
  25. Chief Lian-Cheng, Huang Chu-Ren, Chen Keh Jiann, Tsai Mei-Chih, Chang, Li-Li. 2000. What Can Near Synonyms Tell Us? Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing 5, 1: 47-60.
  26. Liu, Mei-Chun. 2003. Motion, Direction, and Spatial Configuration: A Lexical Semantics Study of ‘HANG’ Verbs in Mandarin. Motion, Direction, and Location in Languages. Shay, Erin and Seibert Uwe (eds.), Typological Studies in Language 56: 177-187.
  27. Chang, Li-Li, Chen Keh-Jiann, and Huang, Chu-Ren. 2000. Alternation across Semantic Fields: A Study on Mandarin Verbs of Emotion. Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing 5, 1:61-80.
  28. Liu, Mei-chun. 2009. Emotion in grammar: Lexical-constructional interface of Mandarin emotion verbs. Paper presented at The 17th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (IACL-17), Paris, France, July 2-4, 2009.
  29. Liu, Mei-Chun. 2005. Lexical Information and Beyond: Meaning Coercion and Constructional Inference of the Mandarin Verb GAN. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 33, 2:310-332.
  30. Liu, Mei-Chun and Chang Chun. 2012. The degree-evaluative construction: Grammaticalization in contructionalization. Newest Trends in the Study of Grammaticalization and Lexicalization in Chinese. Janet Zhiqun Xing (Ed.), 115-148. De Gruyter Mouton.
  31. Huang, Han-Chun. 2008. Resultative Verb Compounds in Mandarin: a constructional approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Hsinchu: National Tsing Hua University.
  32. Liu, Mei-Chun and Hu, Chia-Yin. 2013. Free Alternation? A Study on Grammatical Packaging of Excessive Predication in Mandarin Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 14.1: 47-90.
  33. Su, Lily I-Wen. 2004. Subjectification and the Use of the Complementizer SHUO. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 30.1: 19-40.
  34. 張麗麗。2006。漢語使役句表被動的語義發展。Language and Linguistics 7.1:139-174
 
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